Potenciales usos, desafíos y limitaciones de la determinación de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2

Inicio>>Volumen>>Vol 26, N ° 2 mayo – agosto 2021>>Potenciales usos, desafíos y limitaciones de la determinación de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2

Potenciales usos, desafíos y limitaciones de la determinación de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2


Josué Solano-Cerdas, Marvin Durán-Delgado


La detección oportuna de personas infectadas con el SARS-CoV-2 resulta fundamental en el abordaje y control de la enfermedad pandémica COVID-19 que ha atacado al mundo desde finales del 2019. La técnica RT-PCR representa la metodología de referencia diagnóstica, sin embargo, el surgimiento de determinaciones serológicas ha brindado una importante herramienta de apoyo en sensibilidad diagnóstica al trabajarse en conjunto con técnicas moleculares. Un papel fundamental de las pruebas serológicas se basa en la posibilidad de evaluar títulos de anticuerpos provenientes de exposiciones previas al SARS-CoV-2 o de tratamiento vacunal. Para poder entender la importancia y dar un correcto uso a las pruebas serológicas, se debe conocer la composición proteica del virus, su interacción con el organismo humano y la respuesta antiviral que se produce. En el presente trabajo, se revisarán los métodos serológicos disponibles para detectar anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, así como el perfil de seroconversión y los posibles usos de las pruebas serológicas, al igual que sus limitantes; se finaliza con una serie de recomendaciones que podrían optimizar la aplicación de estas pruebas en nuestra población.

Palabras clave

Serología, COVID-19, inmunoensayo, anticuerpos neutralizantes


Early detection of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential in the approach and control of the global pandemic COVID-19 disease that has attacked the world since December 2019. The RT-PCR technique represents the diagnostic reference methodology; however, the emergence of serological determinations has provided an important support tool in diagnostic sensitivity when working in conjunction with molecular techniques. A fundamental role of serological tests is based on the possibility of evaluating antibody titers from previous exposures to SARS-CoV-2 or from vaccine treatment (in the future). In order to understand the importance and correct use of serological tests, it is necessary to know the protein composition of the virus, its interaction with the human body and the antiviral response that occurs. The present work reviews the serological methods available to detect Anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as the seroconversion profile and the possible uses of serological tests, as well as their limitations; ending with a series of recommendations that could optimize the application of these tests in our population.

Key words

Serology, COVID-19, immunoassay, neutralizing antibodies

Texto completo



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